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Page: About DRIVER
What DRIVER is DRIVER, the "Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research" project is conducted by an EC funded consortium that is building an organisational and technological framework for a pan-European data-layer, enabling the advanced
Page: About the DRIVER Guidelines
Why use the DRIVER Guidelines? The "DRIVER Guidelines for Content Providers: Exposing textual resources with OAI-PMH" will provide orientation for managers of new repositories to define their local data-management policies, for managers of existing reposi
Page: Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements & Contributors (version 1.0) Martin Feijen (SURFfoundation, NL) Maurice Vanderfeesten (SURFfoundation, NL) Wolfram Horstmann (University of Goettingen, DE) Friedrich Summann (University of Bielefeld, DE) Muriel Foulonneau (CNRS, FR) Karen
Page: adminEmail for error logging feedback
See: The repository must provide an administrator e-mail address in the Identify request. In the near future we want the
Page: Annex Use of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
This section addresses an important issue on Usage Rights and Deposit Rights. In practice this must be implemented. The DRIVER Guidelines should say something on how Usage Rights should be exposed and formatted in metadata. The basis of this section will
Page: Annex Use of Persistent Identifiers
Persistent Identifiers for web resources are needed to create a stable and reliable infrastructure. This does not concern technicalities, but mainly agreements on organisational level. DRIVER Guidelines could make some recommendations on the implementatio
Page: Annex Use of Quality Labels
The DRIVER Guidelines 2.0 provides basic information on the importance of Quality, and Interoperability. Quality labels can be used to assure Stable and reliable repositories that last longer than the hype, and have also an archival purpose for Long Term
Page: Annex Use of Usage Statistics Exchange
This section will not appear in the DRIVER Guidelines 2.0 Final release. The input for this section will be make from the experiences and best practices that comes from the two European projects who harvest Statistic reports from repositories to present s
Page: Audience
Element name Audience DCMI definition A class of entity for whom the resource is intended or useful. Usage Optional Usage instruction A class of entity may be determined by the creator or the publisher or by a third party. On the U.S. Department of Educat
Page: Author Identification
(this information is cited and modified from the European NEEO project. Network of European Economists Online (NEEO): project information see For the DAI information se


Page: Background information
The DIDL XML container was originally developed within the DARE program of SURF as a first implementation of MPEG-21 DIDL. The rationale behind this development was: A solution for resource harvesting via OAI-PMH for transport of the digital resources (PD


Page: Challenges
What researchers expect Researchers and other users of digital information systems have high expectations for provision of digital content. Retrieval should be fast, direct (within a few clicks) and versatile. The current culture in the landscape of digit
Page: Communication for Repository modification
Modification to baseURL, setSpec, metadataPrefix, or metadata schema's When a DRIVER repository modifies either the baseURL, setSpec, metadataPrefix or metadata schemas which influence the DRIVER content cycle, then the concerning repository administrator
Page: Contributor
Element name Contributor DCMI definition An entity responsible for making contributions to the content of the resource. Examples of a Contributor include a person, an organization, or a service. Typically, the name of a Contributor should be used to indic
Page: Coverage
Element name Coverage DCMI definition The extent or scope of the content of the resource. Coverage will typically include spatial location (a place name or geographic coordinates), temporal period (a period label, date, or date range) or jurisdiction (suc
Page: Creator
Element name Creator DCMI definition An entity primarily responsible for making the content of the resource. Typically, the name of a Creator should be used to indicate the entity. Usage Mandatory Usage instruction Examples of a Creator include a person,


Page: Date
Element name Date DCMI definition A date associated with an event in the life cycle of the resource.Typically, Date will be associated with the creation or availability of the resource. Recommended best practice for encoding the date value is defined in a
Page: Datestamp
According to the protocol, each record contains a header with a datestamp with "the date of creation, modification or deletion of the record for the purpose of selective harvesting." The protocol also explains the selective harvesting as follows: "..modif
Page: Datestamp syntax
See: ,
Page: DC - RELATION and Linking related objects
The DC:RELATION field can typically be used for describing relations to other expressions, or versions of the document. For example the Published version of an article and the author version of an article. These can be referred to each other by using the
Page: DC - SOURCE and Citation information
For publications use the DC:SOURCE field for inserting information a person can use to appropriately make a citation of the record he/she has found. Preferably use the APA style of writing references. For example <dc:source>Ecology Letters (1461023X), vol
Page: Definitions and concepts (item, record and unique identifier)
Item and Record It is important to make a distinction between Item and Record. The protocol text states: "...An item is conceptually a container that stores or dynamically generates metadata about a single resource in multiple formats, each of which can b
Page: Deleted records
See: If a record is no longer available then it is said to be deleted. Repositories must declare one of thre
Page: Description
Element name Description DCMI definition An account of the content of the resource. Description may include but is not limited to: an abstract, table of contents, reference to a graphical representation of content or a free-text account of the content. Us
Page: Descriptive Provenance Information
The description container of the Identify response may be used to deliver additional information on the repository. Service providers may look for this and improve their data processing and the services based on the metadata and their quality. Best practi
Page: DIDL as wrapper
The DIDL XML container, as defined in DRIVER, is a document with one top-level Item element. The Item contains several child Item elements. These child item elements appear in three different kind of types. Between the straight brackets the cardinality of
Page: DRIVER Guidelines v2
driverIIlogo.jpg Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research DRIVER Guidelines 2.0 Guidelines for content providers - Exposing textual resources with OAI-PMH worddav42d6ff743ceebbd07247c0f3727fe27b.png cc-by [November 2008] G
Page: DRIVER Set Content definitions
The specific content of the 'driver' set is determined at the local repository. A DRIVER repository using this kind of sets must conform to the following rules when inserting a record into the DRIVER set: The DRIVER set contains records that must contain
Page: DRIVER Set naming
See: The OAI-PMH document states: Repositories may organize items into sets. Set organization may be flat, i.e. a simple list, or h
Page: DRIVER-TYPE Mappings
Mapping of other Publication type lists with the one made available in the section Publication type page in chapter "Use of Vocabularies and Semantics". In that section one can find details definitions of the terms used in that vocabulary in order to make
Below are the mappings of the DRIVER versioning scheme compared to other versioning schemes In the library and repository world. More about DRIVER versions in the section Version on page in chapter "Use of Vocabularies and Semantics". Eprints Version type


Page: Encoding schemes
The DRIVER Guidelines use the following encoding schemes: Name Field Scheme Author dc:creator APA bibliographic writing style as in a reference list. Syntax: surname, initials (first name) [ http://en.w
Page: Example of a DIDL embedded in OAI-PMH
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="DIDL_documentHTML.xsl"?> <OAI-PMH xmlns="" xmlns:xsi="" xsi:schemaLocation=" http://www.openarchives


Page: Format
Element name Format DCMI definition The physical or digital manifestation of the resource. Typically, Format may include the media-type or dimensions of the resource. Format may be used to determine the software, hardware or other equipment needed to disp



Page: Harvest batch size
The batch size is the number of records a repository delivers to the harvester for one resumption token and determines how many request processes have to be executed. The agreement is that DRIVER repositories must set the batch size between 100 and 500 re
Home page: Home
Introduction This is the home of the DRIVER guidelines wiki space. Additional information and translations of the Guidelines are available from the DRIVER website DRIVER stands for Digital Repository Infrastruct


Page: Identifier
Element name Identifier DCMI definition An unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context. Usage Mandatory Usage instruction Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identifi
Page: Implementation plan on using URN_NBN Persistent Identifiers
First of all we would like to say that the persistency of Identifiers and web resources is not about the technology one uses, but about organisation and sustainable business models. For more information about Persistent Identifier policies take a look at
Page: Index
Page: Info eu-repo - A namespace for URI-fying un-URIfied Schema's and Identifiers
The namespace info:eu-repo is registered at This name space is an authoritive placeholder for semantic terms, controlled vocabularies
Page: Introduction
Acknowledgements About DRIVER




Page: Language
Element name Language DCMI definition A language of the intellectual content of the resource. Usage Recommended Usage instruction A specific resource (an instance of scientific output) is either written in one human language or more. In these cases all us


Page: MetadataPrefix naming
See: OAI-PMH supports the dissemination of records in multiple metadata formats from a repository. Th



Page: OA-Statistik
The ease of access experienced with Open Access publications lacking any need for authentication, financial transactions or personal identification makes it much easier to achieve a satisfying level of reception in a scientific community. This and similar
Page: OAI Response with a DIDL document
The DIDL document is part of an OAI-PMH response. The DIDL document will be returned within an OAI-record when using didl as value of the metadataPrefix verb. This enables the repository to generate this particular DIDL format that is described in the doc
Page: Outline - DRIVER Guidelines Summary
The following outline summarises the basic DRIVER settings for the basic topics textual resources, metadata usage and OAI-PMH protocol implementation. The elaborated details can be found in the following chapters. PART A - Textual Resources mandatory The


Page: PIRUS Publisher and Institutional Repository Usage Statistics
The aim of this project is to develop COUNTER-compliant usage reports at the individual article level that can be implemented by any entity (publisher, aggregator, IR, etc.,) that hosts online journal articles and will enable the usage of research outputs
Page: Prefix & namespace declaration
See: namespace declarations - the declarations of the namespaces used within the metadata part, each of which is prefixed wi
Page: Preliminary results of the project OA-Statistik
Goals of OA-Statistics We aim to produce valid and reliable document usage statistics based solely on information gathered from the HTTP layer. There are two main issues addressed by all existing standards which generate the bulk of the necessary correcti
Page: Presentations
<div style="width:425px;text-align:left" id="__ss_2236829"><a style="font:14px Helvetica,Arial,Sans-serif;display:block;margin:12px 0 3px 0;text-decoration:underline;" href="
Page: Publication type vocabulary
The Publication type vocabulary listed below has a deep history from within the European repository community. It is a combination of the types DARE uses from DC guidelines, types listed in the DINI certificate and the e-Prints publication types Vocabular
Page: Publisher
Element name Publisher DCMI definition An entity responsible for making the resource available. Examples of a Publisher include a person, an organization, or a service. Typically, the name of a Publisher should be used to indicate the entity. Usage Mandat



Page: Relation
Element name Relation DCMI definition The reference to a related resource. Usage Optional Usage instruction Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. The DC element
Page: Resumption token
See: Repositories that implement resumptionTokens must do so in a manner that allows harvesters to resume a sequenc
Page: Rights
Element name Rights DCMI definition Information about rights held in and over the resource. Usage Recommended Usage instruction Typically, a Rights element will contain a rights management statement for the access or use of the object, or reference a serv


Page: Set Location
The DRIVER set and the other sets can be located at a different locations/baseURLs.
Page: Source Element name Source DCMI definition A reference to a resource from which the present resource is derived. Usage Optional Usage instruction The
Page: Subject
Element name Subject DCMI definition The topic of the resource. Typically, a Subject will be expressed as keywords, key phrases or classification codes that describe the intellectual content of the resource. Usage Mandatory when applicable Usage instructi
Page: Subject classification
Metadata delivered via OAI-PMH contain a broad range of subject headings and classification information. The used classification and subject heading systems and the presentation formats vary broadly. In most cases this information appears in simple dc for


Page: The Elements full description
Below full descriptions of the elements are provided. DCMI definitions come from the DCMI guidelines document "Using Dublin Core - The Elements" see
Page: The Elements short description
Within DRIVER the use of elements is either: mandatory (M) = the element must always be present in the metadata record. An empty element is not allowed. mandatory when applicable (MA) = when the element can be obtained it must be present in the metadata r
Page: Title
Element name Title DCMI definition A name given to the resource. Typically, a Title will be a name by which the resource is formally known. Usage Mandatory Usage instruction Preserve the original wording, order and spelling of the resource title. Only cap
Page: Type
Element name Type DCMI definition The type of scientific output the resource is a manifestation of. In the DC element type the kind of dissemination, or the intellectual and/or content type of the resource is described. It is used to explain to the user w


Page: Use of Best Practices for OAI_DC
This chapter deals with common problems that repository administrators come across when installing a repository. These practices are not mandatory, but form the best possible solution to common problems. These solutions come from best practices from other
Page: Use of Metadata OAI_DC
This chapter describes the way DRIVER envisions interoperability for scholarly communication. This means qualitative correct metadata of the records based on the use of standards. Acknowledgements This document is largely based on the recommendations for
Page: Use of MPEG-21 DIDL (xml-container) - Compound object wrapping
Introduction and Goal This document is an addition to the existing DIDL specification document for repositories which is being used by the Dutch Universities, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National Library of The Netherlands, and NARCIS. The goal of this docum
Page: Use of OAI-PMH
Introduction This chapter explains how to use OAI-PMH in a way so that repositories and service providers can seamlessly work together by creating interoperability on a protocol level. Remark: The examples used for DIDL; do NOT use them literally! For the
Page: Use of OAI_DC with Theses
This recommendation is based on the study report "A PORTAL FOR DOCTORAL E-THESES IN EUROPE; Lessons Learned from a Demonstrator Project" This study is a
Page: Use of Vocabularies and Semantics


Page: Version vocabulary
This section is about the versions that describe the status of the document. We have introduced version information to make it possible to describe the Publication type without mixing the terms with version or status information. For example, the term "Pe


Page: What's New
This section provides information about what has changed compared to the DRIVER guidelines v1.0. The reason to change several parts wat becouse of the questions that came it. Most of the changes are enhancements and improved explanations rather then real
Page: What's New in Annex Use of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
See: Use of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) page for a starting document. This addresses an important issue on Usage Rights and Deposit Rights. In practice this must be implemented. The DRIVER Guidelines should tell something on how Usage Rights and Ac
Page: What's New in Annex Use of Persistent Identifiers
See Annex: Use of Persistent Identifiers page for a starting document. Persistent Identifiers for web resources are needed to create a stable and reliable infrastructure. This does not concern technicalities, but mainly agreements on an organisational lev
Page: What's New in Annex Use of Quality labels
See Annex: Use of Quality Labels page for a starting document. The DRIVER Guidelines 2.0 provides basic information on the importance of Quality, and Interoperability. Quality labels can be used to assure stable and reliable repositories that last longer
Page: What's New in Annex Use of Usage Statistics Exchange
See Annex: Use of Usage Statistics Exchangepage for a starting document. In order to see the value of Open Access and offer extra services to your authors, repositories should think about aggregating usage statistics. Two projects will gain insights and h
Page: What's New in Use of Best Practices for OAI_DC
DRIVER-TYPEMappings Explanation: how to map [x] Local categories to [y] DRIVER categories. See: DRIVER-TYPE Mappings page. DRIVER-VERSION Mappings Explanation: how to use the different status/versions of Publication and to map [x] Local categories to [y]
Page: What's New in Use of Compound Object Wrapping
Several major important changes have been made Wrong DIDL schema location, validation not possible Modify reference of info:eu-repo namespace Modifications are also put in the example Changes to meet future transport of Author Identifiers Add namespace an
Page: What's New in Use of Metadata OAI_DC
Identifier How to handle other identifiers that are in the repository. Are OAI identifiers allowed? Where should the identifier point to? How should they be exposed? Explanation The Identification of a resource has been broadened. The repository can use a
Page: What's New in Use of OAI-PMH
DRIVER Set naming Added information to answer questions about "Recommended Set names for "Open Access" and "Embargoed/Delayed Access" subcollections - See DRIVER Set naming page. Explanation: Recommended for hybrid repositories with a mixture of metadata-
Page: What's New in Use of Vocabularies and Semantics
Two vocabularies have been made to de-ambiguify the concepts and terms used in scholarly communication in Europe. Several more issues therefore have been solved: Document type : Preprint and Postprint versioning Document type: What is the difference betwe


Page: XML validation
The XML that the repository provides will be validated automatically during the DRIVER repository registration process and the DRIVER harvesting process. A DRIVER repository must provide a valid XML according to all XML schemas used (OAI-PMH, DIDL, oai-dc




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