Work in Progress

This page is under construction and its contents are subject to change.



This page contains the the HBO Bibliographic Metadata application profile of DIDL/MODS. Please refer to the following sections for details.

  • Structural and Technical MetadataThis page provides an overview of the application of MPEG-21 DIDL as structural and technical metadata.
  • Bibliographic FieldsThe following sections present a description of all bibliographic metadata fields of the HBO Bibliographic Metadata application profile of MODS.
  • HBO MODS ExtensionThe HBO MODS Extension contains extensions for Awards, Grades and Organisation names. For a technical implementation, please see the XML schema provided on this page.
  • Mapping HBO DC to HBO MODSThis page provides an overview of the mapping from the previous application profile from theses and publications to the new common HBO Bibliographic Metadata DIDL/MODS application profile.

Standards reference for this application profile


The Digital Item Declaration Language (MPEG-21 DIDL) developed by the Moving Picture Expert Group is a generic XML format consisting of 'items' that support a modulair structure. Every 'item' contains its own descriptions of the object ('descriptors') and the object or reference tot the object that represents the item ('components').

According to the MPEG21 DIDL Application Profile for Institutional Repositories a DIDL container contains a single top-level item that may be viewed upon as the conceptual publication as a compound object. This compound object then consists out of at least one item containing bibliographic metadata and zero or more item containing (references to) objects. These objects may be PDF documents inside the repository, but also relevant links to other websites or pieces of XML. In addition to these objects, according to the specification a reference may be made to a so-called Jump-off page. This is a HTML webpage at the repository which serves as a human readable startingpoint in getting access to (descriptive) information. An example of such a jumpo-off page can be found on

Starting 2006, DIDL is used by the Dutch universities to exchange these so-called compound objects. Its use is described by the MPEG21 DIDL Application Profile for Institutional Repositories.


Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) is an XML schema for bibliographic metadata developed and maintained by the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress.

Since 2008 this standard is used by the Dutch universities to replace Dublin Core (DC) in order to overcome the lack of granularity offered by Dublin Core. The application profile used by the Dutch universities is specified by the Use of MODS for institutional repositories.

info:eu-repo namespace

The info:eu-repo namespace is an authoritive namesapce for terms, controlled vocabularies and identifiers.


While the granualarity offered by MODS easily surpasses that of DC, as any standard it has its limitations. However MODS offers a controlled mechanism to extend the schema to accomodate community specific requirements.

The HBO Bibliographic Metadata application profile uses two of such extensions:

  1. HBO MODS Extension to cater for some specific requirements such as grades for theses, awards and decomposition of organisation names.
  2. DAI extension to include Digital Author Identifiers with author names.
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